Turkey in 2011 HD Report

15 Nov 2011

image

The 2011 Human Development Report presents 2011 Human Development Index (HDI) values and ranks for 187 countries and UN-recognized territories, along with the Inequality-adjusted HDI for 134 countries, the Gender Inequality Index for 146 countries, and the Multidimensional Poverty Index for 109 countries.

New Horizons -Country rankings and values in the annual Human Development Index (HDI) are kept under strict embargo until the global launch and worldwide electronic release of the Human Development Report.  The 2011 Report will be launched globally in November 2011.

It is misleading to compare values and rankings with those of previously published reports, because the underlying data and methods have changed, as well as the number of countries included in the HDI. The 187 countries ranked in the 2011 HDI represents a significant increase from the 169 countries included in  the 2010 Index, when key indicators for many countries were unavailable. 

Readers are advised in the Report to assess progress in HDI values by referring to Table 2 (‘Human Development Index Trends’) in the Statistical Annex of the report. Table 2 is based on consistent indicators, methodology and time-series data and thus shows real changes in values and ranks over time reflecting the actual progress countries have made.

For further details on how each index is calculated please refer to Technical Notes 1-4 in the 2011 Report and the associated background papers available on the Human Development Report website.

Human Development Index (HDI)


The HDI is a summary measure for assessing long-term progress in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living.  As in the 2010 HDR a long and healthy life is measured by life expectancy, access to knowledge is measured by: i) mean years of adult education, which is the average number of years of education received in a life-time by people aged 25 years and older; and ii) expected years of schooling for children of school-entrance age, which is the total number of years of schooling a child of school-entrance age can expect to receive if prevailing patterns of age-specific enrolment rates stay the same throughout the child's life. Standard of living is measured by Gross National Income (GNI) per capita expressed in constant 2005 PPP$.

To ensure as much cross-country comparability as possible, the HDI is based primarily on international data from the UN Population Division, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) and the World Bank. As stated in the introduction, the HDI values and ranks in this year’s report are not comparable to those in past reports (including the 2010 HDR) because of a number of revisions done to the component indicators by the mandated agencies. To allow for assessment of progress in HDIs, the 2011 report includes recalculated HDIs from 1980 to 2011.

Turkey’s HDI value and rank

Turkey’s HDI value for 2011 is 0.699—in the high human development category—positioning the country at 92 out of 187 countries and territories. Between 1980 and 2011, Turkey’s HDI value increased from 0.463 to 0.699, an increase of 51.0 per cent or average annual increase of about 1.3 per cent.

The rank of Turkey’s HDI for 2010 based on data available in 2011 and methods used in 2011 is 95 out of 187 countries. In the 2010 HDR, Turkey was ranked 83 out of 169 countries. However, it is misleading to compare values and rankings with those of previously published reports, because the underlying data and methods have changed, as well as the number of countries included in the HDI.

Table A reviews Turkey’s progress in each of the HDI indicators. Between 1980 and 2011, Turkey’s life expectancy at birth increased by 17.4 years, mean years of schooling increased by 3.6 years and expected years of schooling increased by 4.9 years.  Turkey’s GNI per capita increased by about 119.0 per cent between 1980 and 2011.

Table A: Turkey’s HDI trends based on consistent time series data, new component indicators and new methodology

 

Life expectancy at birth

Expected years of schooling

Means years of schooling

GNI per capita (2005 PPP$)

HDI value

1980

56.5

7.0

2.9

5,595

0.463

1985

60.1

7.8

4.0

6,332

0.518

1990

63.1

8.4

4.5

7,683

0.558

1995

66.1

9.2

4.8

8,210

0.588

2000

69.5

10.3

5.5

9,260

0.634

2005

72.1

11.2

6.1

10,840

0.671

2010

73.7

11.8

6.5

11,841

0.696

2011

74.0

11.8

6.5

12,246

0.699

 

Figure 1 below shows the contribution of each component index to Turkey’s HDI since 1980.

Figure 1: Trends in Turkey’s HDI component indices 1980-2011



Assessing progress relative to other countries

Long-term progress can be usefully assessed relative to other countries—both in terms of geographical location and HDI value. For instance, during the period between 1995 and 2011 Turkey, Armenia and Republic of Moldova experienced different degrees of progress toward increasing their HDIs (See Figure 2). 

Figure 2: Trends in Turkey’s HDI 1980-2011



Turkey’s 2011 HDI of 0.699 is below the average of 0.741 for countries in the high human development group and below the average of 0.751 for countries in Europe and Central Asia. From Europe and Central Asia, countries which are close to Turkey in 2011 HDI rank and population size are Serbia and Azerbaijan which have HDIs ranked 59 and 91 respectively (see Table B).

Table B:  Turkey’s HDI indicators for 2011 relative to selected countries and groups

 

HDI value

HDI rank

Life expectancy at birth

Expected years of schooling

Mean years of schooling

GNI per capita (PPP US$)

Turkey

0.699

92

74.0

11.8

6.5

12,246

Serbia

0.766

59

74.5

13.7

10.2

10,236

Azerbaijan

0.700

91

70.7

11.8

8.6

8,666

Europe and Central Asia

0.751

71.3

13.4

9.7

12,004

High HDI

0.741

73.1

13.6

8.5

11,579



Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)

The HDI is an average measure of basic human development achievements in a country. Like all averages, the HDI masks inequality in the distribution of human development across the population at the country level.  The 2010 HDR introduced the ‘inequality adjusted HDI (IHDI)’, which takes into account inequality in all three dimensions of the HDI by ‘discounting’ each dimension’s average value according to its level of inequality. The HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development and IHDI as an index of actual human development. The ‘loss’ in potential human development due to inequality is given by the difference between the HDI and the IHDI, and can be expressed as a percentage. (For more details see the technical note 2).

Turkey’s HDI for 2011 is 0.699. However, when the value is discounted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.542, a loss of 22.5 per cent due to inequality in the distribution of the dimension indices.  Serbia and Azerbaijan show losses due to inequality of 9.5 per cent and 11.4 per cent respectively.  The average loss due to inequality for high HDI countries is 20.5 per cent and for Europe and Central Asia it is 12.7 per cent.

Table C:  Turkey’s IHDI for 2011 relative to selected countries and groups

 

IHDI value

Overall Loss (%)

Loss due to inequality in life expectancy at birth (%)

Loss due to inequality in education (%)

Loss due to inequality in income (%)

Turkey

0.542

22.5

12.8

27.4

26.5

Serbia

0.694

9.5

8.3

9.9

10.3

Azerbaijan

0.620

11.4

20.6

8.3

4.5

Europe and Central Asia

0.655

12.7

11.7

10.7

15.7

High HDI

0.590

20.5

12.4

18.9

28.2


Gender Inequality Index (GII)

The Gender Inequality Index (GII) reflects gender-based inequalities in three dimensions – reproductive health, empowerment, and economic activity. Reproductive health is measured by maternal mortality and adolescent fertility rates; empowerment is measured by the share of parliamentary seats held by each gender and attainment at secondary and higher education by each gender; and economic activity is measured by the labour market participation rate for each gender. The GII replaced the previous Gender-related Development Index and Gender Empowerment Index. The GII shows the loss in human development due to inequality between female and male achievements in the three GII dimensions. (For more details on GII please see Technical note 3 in the Statistics Annex.)

Turkey has a GII value of 0.443, ranking it 77 out of 146 countries in the 2011 index. In Turkey, 9.1 per cent of parliamentary seats are held by women, and 27.1 per cent of adult women have reached a secondary or higher level of education compared to 46.7 per cent of their male counterparts. For every 100,000 live births, 23 women die from pregnancy related causes; and the adolescent fertility rate is 39.2 births per 1000 live births. Female participation in the labour market is 24.0 per cent compared to 69.6 for men.

In comparison Azerbaijan is ranked 50 on this index.

Table D:  Turkey’s GII for 2011 relative to selected countries and groups

 

GII value

GII Rank

Maternal mortality ratio

Adolescent fertility rate

Female seats in parliament (%)

Population with at least secondary education (%)

Labour force participation rate (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Female

Male

Female

Male

Turkey

0.443

77

23

39.2

9.1

27.1

46.7

24.0

69.6

Azerbaijan

0.314

50

38

33.8

16.0

65.4

61.9

59.5

66.8

Europe and Central Asia

0.311

29

28.0

13.4

78.0

83.3

49.7

67.8

High HDI

0.409

51

51.6

13.5

61.0

64.6

47.8

75.0

 

Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

The 2010 HDR introduced the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), which identifies multiple deprivations in the same households in education, health and standard of living.  The education and health dimensions are based on two indicators each while the standard of living dimension is based on six indicators.  All of the indicators needed to construct the MPI for a household are taken from the same household survey.  The indicators are weighted, and the deprivation scores are computed for each household in the survey.  A cut-off of 33.3 percent, which is the equivalent of one-third of the weighted indicators, is used to distinguish between the poor and nonpoor. If the household deprivation score is 33.3 percent or greater, that household (and everyone in it) is multidimensionally poor. Households with a deprivation score greater than or equal to 20 percent but less than 33.3 percent are vulnerable to or at risk of becoming multidimensionally poor.

The most recent survey data that were publically available for Turkey’s MPI estimation refer to 2003.  In Turkey 6.6 per cent of the population suffer multiple deprivations while an additional 7.3 per cent are vulnerable to multiple deprivations.  The breadth of deprivation (intensity) in Turkey, which is the average percentage of deprivation experienced by people in multidimensional poverty, is 42.0 per cent. The MPI, which is the share of the population that is multi-dimensionally poor, adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations, is 0.028.  Serbia and Azerbaijan have MPIs of 0.003 and 0.021 respectively.

Table E compares income poverty, measured by the percentage of the population living below PPP US$1.25 per day, and multidimensional deprivations in Turkey.  It shows that income poverty only tells part of the story.  The multidimensional poverty headcount is 3.9 percentage points higher than income poverty. This implies that individuals living above the income poverty line may still suffer deprivations in education, health and other living conditions.  Table E also shows the percentage of Turkey’s population that live in severe poverty (deprivation score is 50 per cent or more) and that are vulnerable to poverty (deprivation score between 20 and 30 per cent).  Figures for Serbia and Azerbaijan are also shown in the table for comparison.

Table E:  Turkey’s MPI for 2011 relative to selected countries

 

MPI value

Headcount (%)

Intensity of deprivation (%)

Population vulnerable to poverty (%)

Population in severe poverty (%)

Population below income poverty line (%)

Turkey

0.028

6.6

42.0

7.3

1.3

2.7

Serbia

0.003

0.8

40.0

3.6

0.1

0.1

Azerbaijan

0.021

5.3

39.4

12.5

0.6

1.0