6 Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty

What is the current situation in the world?

The world reached the MDG target of halving the proportion of people living in extreme poverty five years ahead of the 2015 deadline.

The absolute number of people living in extreme poverty fell from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 1.2 billion in 2010.

According to World Bank projections, sub-Saharan Africa will be unlikely to meet the target of poverty reduction by 2015.

The overwhelming majority of people living on less than $1.25 a day belong to two regions: Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria (9 per cent), Bangladesh (5 per cent) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (5 per cent) followed. Nearly two thirds of the extreme poor lived in those five countries in 2010. 

Vulnerable employment rate accounted for an estimated 56 per cent of all employment in developing regions in 2013, compared to 10 per cent in developed regions. This rate decreased by 2.8 percentage points in the period of 2008–2013.

In developing regions, 60 per cent of women were in vulnerable employment in 2013, compared to 54 per cent of men. The largest gender gaps (all exceeding 10 percentage points) were found in Northern Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Western Asia and Oceania.

On average, productivity growth in developing regions slowed down from 5.6 per cent annually to 4.0 per cent annually.

A total of 842 million people, or about one in eight people in the world, were estimated to be suffering from chronic hunger in 2011–2013. The vast majority of those people (827 million) resided in developing regions.

The number of underweight children fell by 38 per cent from an estimated 160 million children in 1990. 

Although the prevalence of stunting fell from an estimated 40 per cent in 1990 to 25 per cent in 2012, an estimated 162 million children under the age of five remain at risk of diminished cognitive and physical development associated with this chronic form of under nutrition.

By the end of 2013, a record high of 51 million people were displaced forcibly worldwide.

What is the current situation in Turkey?

Photo: İsmail Tütün

The most outstanding achievement of Turkey in the past years in attaining the Millennium Development Goals has been the reduction of the levels of poverty.

Poverty, defined as living on a dollar a day, was practically eliminated standing at 0.01 % in 2006 compared to 0.2 % in 2002 and has completely been eradicated since 2007.

According to Turkish Statistical Institute (TÜİK), proportion of population below $ 2.15 a day in 2011 was 0.14% while it was 3.04% in 2002; the proportion of population below $ 4.3 a day in 2011 was 2.79% while it was 30.30% in 2002.

While the proportion of food poverty in Turkey was 1.35 % in 2002, this rate decreased to 0.54 % in 2008.

Fortunately Turkey does not face a hunger problem but rather a poverty-related malnutrition. The prevalence of underweight children under five years of age was 8.3% in 1998 while this rate fell down to 3.9% in 2003 and 2.8% in 2008.

Quick Facts
  •  About 700 million fewer people lived in conditions of extreme poverty in 2010 than in 1990.
  • The economic and financial crisis has widened the global jobs gap by 67 million people.
  • One in eight people still go to bed hungry, despite major progress.
  • Globally, nearly one in six children under age five are underweight; one in four are stunted.
  • An estimated 7 per cent of children under age five worldwide are now overweight, another aspect of malnutrition; one quarter of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa.

Source: 2013 Millennium Development Goals Report

Targets for MDG1
  1. Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day
    • Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day
    • Poverty gap ratio
    • Share of poorest quintile in national consumption
  2. Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people
    • Growth rate of GDP per person employed
    • Employment-to-population ratio
    • Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day
    • Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment
  3. Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
    • Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age
    • Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption