• 0.37

    Gender Inequality Index

  • 14.4%

    Proportion of Seats held by Women in the Parliament

  • 7.4%

    Inflation rate (2013)

  • 9.7%

    Unemployment rate

  • 4.5

    CO2 emissions per capita (metric tonnes)

  • 0.32%

    Share of official development assistance in GDP


The Bosphorus Bridge, Istanbul


Republic of Turkey is situated on East Thrace in Southeastern Europe and in the Anatolia in Western Asia.


It is bordered by Mediterranean Sea to the south, Black Sea to the north and Aegean Sea to the west.


It is also bordered by eight countries that are Greece, Bulgaria, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Azerbaijani exclave of Nakchivan, Syria and Iraq.


In recent years, Turkey has enjoyed a steady growth and consistent improvement in human development.


Turkey's dynamic economy, the 17th largest in the world and one of the fastest growing, is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector.



In the latest Human Development Report of 2013, Human Development Index (HDI) indicates that with a value of 0.722, Turkey is listed among the “High Human Development” category, ranking 90th out of 187 countries.


This ranking puts the country behind all EU member states and also below the OECD average.


In the 2012 Gender Inequality Index (GII), Turkey ranked 68 among 148 countries.


The gender gap continues to be a challenge particularly in achieving parity in political and decision spheres.

Women representation in the parliament is 14.4 percent (before 2011 elections this was 9%) with even lower levels observed in terms of women’s participation in politics at local level. 


As such, Turkey needs to focus its efforts in increasing the mean years of schooling (6,5 years in 2011 and 2012) and gender equality in representation at the decision making levels and in employment to achieve higher ranks in Human Development Index.



Turkey has made a lot of progress in Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since 2000.


In Turkey, extreme poverty below the income level of one dollar per day does not exist anymore, which was 1.1% in 1994 and 0.2% in 2002, was reduced to nil in 2006, and food poverty is also being kept at a relatively low level.


Based on the $2,15-a-day poverty lines in current PPPs, percentage of poor in 2011 is 0,14% while it is 0,06% in 2012.


Based on the $4,3-a-day poverty line in current PPPs, percentage of poor in 2011 is 2,79% while it is 2,27% in 2012.

Turkey also nearly achieved gender parity in primary education and has made important progress with regards to reducing child and maternal mortality rates.


Achieving universal primary education in Turkey is well within reach before 2015 with a net enrolment ratio of 98.7 percent, while the literacy rate among the 15-24 age group is at 97 percent.



The Republic of Turkey was founded on 29 October 1923 and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk became the Republic’s first president.


Turkey is a member of the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and the G-20 major economies.


Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.

More statistics from Turkey


Life expectancy at birth


Mean years of schooling


Expected years of schooling


GDP per capita, USD (2011;PPP$2005)


Female labour participation rate (% ages 15 and older)


Public spending on health (% of GDP, 2010)


Public spending on education (% of GDP, 2005-2010)


Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older)


Population with at least secondary education (% ages 25 and older, 2011)


Employment to population ratio (% ages 25 and older, 2011)


Youth unemployment (% ages 15-24, 2005-2011)


Energy supply: Fossil fuels (2009, % of total)


Energy supply: Renewables (2009, % of total)


Per capita CO2 emission (2008, tonnes)


Per capita greenhouse gas emission (2005, tonnes of CO2 equivalent)


Forest area (2010, % of land area)


Expected population in 2030 (millions)


Annual population growth (%) (2010/2015)


Total fertility rate (births per woman, 2012)


* All statistics listed here are drawn from 2013 Human Development Report

Country flag
Country map
75,627,384 * in 2012
Area (in sq. km)
783,562.38 **
Poverty rate (proportion of people living under 4.3 dollars a day)
2.27 % *
GDP per capita
10,497 $ *****
Human Development Index
0.722 ****

Sources: *Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT), **The Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry Investment Support and Promotion Agency, ***Grand National Assembly of Turkey, ****Human Development Report 2013 *****Ministry of Economy