About Turkey


Gender Inequality Index


Proportion of Seats held by Women in the Parliament


Women's labour force participation rate (2016)


CO2 emissions per capita (metric tonnes)


Share of official development assistance in GDP


IstanbulThe Bosphorus Bridge, Istanbul

Republic of Turkey is situated on East Thrace in Southeastern Europe and in the Anatolia in Western Asia.

It is bordered by Mediterranean Sea to the south, Black Sea to the north and Aegean Sea to the west.

It is also bordered by eight countries that are Greece, Bulgaria, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Azerbaijani exclave of Nakchivan, Syria and Iraq.

In recent years, Turkey has enjoyed a steady growth and consistent improvement in human development.

Turkey's dynamic economy, the 17th largest in the world and one of the fastest growing, is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector.


In the latest Human Development Report of 2016, Human Development Index (HDI) indicates that with a value of 0.767, Turkey is listed among the “High Human Development” category, ranking 71st out of 188 countries.

However, when the value is discounted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.645, a loss of 12.2 percent due to inequality in the distribution of the HDI dimension indices.

Gender Inequality Index, reflecting gender-based inequalities, 0.328, ranking it 71 out of 155 countries in the 2016 index.

In Turkey, 14.9 percent of parliamentary seats are held by women, and 43.5 percent of adult women have reached at least a secondary level of education compared to 64.8 percent of their male counterparts.

For every 100,000 live births, 16 women die from pregnancy related causes; and the adolescent birth rate is 11.6 births per 1,000 women.

Female participation in the labour market is 30.4 percent compared to 71,4 for men.

As such, Turkey needs to focus its efforts in increasing the mean years of schooling (7.9 years in 2015) and gender equality in representation at the decision making levels and in employment to achieve higher ranks in Human Development Index.


Turkey has made a lot of progress in Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since 2000.

In Turkey, extreme poverty below the income level of one dollar per day does not exist anymore, which was 1.1% in 1994 and 0.2% in 2002, was reduced to nil in 2006, and food poverty is also being kept at a relatively low level.

Based on the $2,15-a-day poverty lines in current PPPs, percentage of poor in 2011 is 0,14% while it is 0,06% in 2012.

Based on the $4,3-a-day poverty line in current PPPs, percentage of poor in 2011 is 2,79% while it is 2,27% in 2012.

Turkey also nearly achieved gender parity in primary education and has made important progress with regards to reducing child and maternal mortality rates.

Achieving universal primary education in Turkey is well within reach before 2015 with a net enrolment ratio of 98.7 percent, while the literacy rate among the 15-24 age group is at 97 percent.


The Republic of Turkey was founded on 29 October 1923 and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk became the Republic’s first president.

Turkey is a member of the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and the G-20 major economies.

Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.

More statistics from Turkey


Life expectancy at birth


Mean years of schooling


Expected years of schooling


GNI per capita, USD (2016 PPP$)


Female labour force participation rate (% ages 15 and older)


Public spending on health (% of GDP, 2015)


Public spending on education (% of GDP, 2015)


Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older)


Population with at least secondary education (% ages 25 and older, 2015)


Employment to population ratio (% ages 25 and older, 2015)


Youth unemployment (% ages 15-24, 2015)


Energy supply: Renewables (2015, % of total)


Per capita CO2 emission (2015, tonnes)


Natural resource depletion (% of GNI, 2008-2015)


Forest area (2015, % of total land area)


Expected population in 2030 (millions)


Annual population growth (%) (2010-2015)


Total fertility rate (births per woman, 2010-2015)


* All statistics listed here are drawn from 2016 Human Development Report


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